A new European Radiology study provided what might be the first insights into whether AI can allow radiographers to independently read lung cancer screening exams, while alleviating the resource challenges that have slowed LDCT screening program rollouts.
This is the type of study that makes some radiologists uncomfortable, but its results suggest that rads’ role in lung cancer screening remains very secure.
The researchers had two trained UK-based radiographers read 716 LDCT exams using a computer-assisted detection AI solution (158 w/ significant pulmonary nodules), and compared them with interpretations from radiologists who didn’t have CADe assistance.
The radiographers had significantly lower sensitivity than the radiologists (68% & 73.7%; p < 0.001), leading to 61 false negative exams. However, the two CADe-assisted radiographers did achieve:
- Good sensitivity with cancers confirmed from baseline scans – 83.3% & 100%
- Relatively high specificity – 92.1% & 92.7%
- Low false-positive rates – 7.9% and 7.3%
The CADe AI solution might have both helped and hurt the radiographers’ performance, as CADe missed 20 of the radiographers’ 40 false negative nodules, and four of their seven false negative malignant nodules.
Even as LDCT CADe tools become far more accurate, they might not be able to fill in radiographers’ incidental findings knowledge gap. The radiographers achieved either “good” or “fair” interobserver agreement rates with radiologists for emphysema and CAC findings, but the variety of other incidental pathologies was “too broad to reasonably expect radiographers to detect and interpret.”
Although CADe-assisted radiographer studies might concern some radiologists, this seems like an important aspect of AI to understand given the workload demands that come with lung cancer screening programs, and the need to better understand how clinicians and AI can work together.
Good thing for any concerned radiologists, this study shows that LDCT reporting is too complex and current CADe solutions are too limited for CADe-equipped radiographers to independently read LDCTs… “at least for the foreseeable future.”