A thought-provoking JACR editorial by Emory’s Hari Trivedi MD suggests that AI’s slow adoption rate has little to do with its quality or clinical benefits, and a lot to do with radiology’s misaligned incentives.
After interviewing 25 clinical and industry leaders, the radiology professor and co-director of Emory’s HITI Lab detailed the following economic mismatches:
- Private Practices value AI that improves radiologist productivity, allowing them to increase reading volumes without equivalent increases in headcount. That makes triage or productivity-focused AI valuable, but gives them no economic justification to purchase AI that catches incidentals, ensures follow-ups, or reduces unnecessary biopsies.
- Academic centers or hospitals that own radiology groups have far more to gain from AI products that detect incidental/missed findings and then drive internal admissions, referrals, and procedures. That means their highest-ROI AI solutions often drive revenue outside of the radiology department, while creating more radiologist labor.
- Community hospital emergency departments value AI that allows them to discharge or treat emergency patients faster, although this often doesn’t economically benefit their radiology departments or partner practices.
- Payor/provider health systems (e.g. the VA, Intermountain, Kaiser) can be open to a broad range of AI, but they especially value AI that reduces costs by avoiding unnecessary tests or catching early signs of diseases.
People tend to paint imaging AI with a wide brush (AI is… all good, all bad, a job stealer, or the future) and we’ve seen a similar approach to AI adoption barrier editorials (AI just needs… trust, reimbursements, integration, better accuracy, or the killer app). However, even if each of these adoption barriers are solved, it’s hard to see how AI could achieve widespread adoption if the groups paying for AI aren’t economically benefiting from it.
Because of that, Dr. Trivedi encourages vendors to develop AI that provides “returns” to the same groups that make the “investments.” That might mean that few AI products achieve widespread adoption on their own, but a diverse group of specialized AI products achieve widespread use across all radiology settings.